Authors: Mary Oluyemisi Aina and Hafsah Temi Aminu (Nigeria) | Published on 1 July 2022


A metaphor is a direct comparison of two unrelated things which have some features in common.

Stage 1: Present pictures/videos/drawings of different items. Point out a unique feature of each item presented.


Pig – loves a dirty environment.

Cheetah – runs fast.

Chameleon – changes colour to suit its environment.

Mountain – huge.

Stage 2: Explain to learners that the examples above can be used to describe other things due to their unique features. 


He is a pig (describing a dirty person).

That girl is a cheetah (she can run very fast).

My friend is a chameleon (he changes his personality in different situations).

He finished the mountain of fufu (a huge dish of fufu).

Stage 3: Check understanding.

Show learners pictures or videos of some actions taking place. Write some metaphorical sentences on the board. Ask the students to match each sentence to an action they can see in the picture / video.


The snow is a white blanket.

She is a shining star.

His eyes were ice cold.

She cried a river of tears.

Father became a raging bull when he saw the damage.

The world is a stage.

Stage 4: Practice

Write some pairs of sentences on the board; one sentence with a metaphor and the other, a simple sentence using the same word. Ask learners to underline the sentences that are metaphors.

Sample sentences:

The world is a globe. / My father bought a globe.

Our principal is an angel. / My sister’s name is Angel.

His teeth are now charcoal because of the tobacco he chews. / Ben bought a sack of charcoal.


Adjective: a word that describes or tells us more about a noun.

See also